Sunday, July 26, 2020

The Magic Chapter Sample Essay

The Magic Chapter Sample Essay Somewhere at the intersection of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, a young Afro-American writer theoretically and artistically embodied the questions of the stop of the grievous lives of slaves, the development of black consciousness, the souls of black people, the current situation of the new Negro in white society, the prospects for the future coexistence of races . A kind of polemic unfolded between the writers and public figures such as Booker Washington and William Dubois (1868-1963). Its interesting that both of them started from the same discovery that black Americans have the same feelings, thoughts and aspirations as people with white skin (W. Dubois). The first of them in the remarkable book of memoirs advanced the idea of the future parallel success of the two races. William Dubois in the brilliant multi-genre book The Soul of Black Folk (1903) recognized the inevitability of racial opposition. In an effort to elevate the spirit of his fellow men, to straighten out what he called a dual consciousness (they are both Americans and black as if they are inferior), Dubois put forward a polemical slogan: Black is fine!. This slogan had a lasting and complex impact on the entire Negro culture of the 20th century, it was perceived differently at different stages of its development. At one time, it adopted the call to beat the whites, which absolutely did not correspond to the idea of Dubois, who was an intelligent and peaceful man, even laying hopes on the goodwill of the black and philanthropy of the whites. At the turn of the century, Du Bois shook only the awakened black consciousness, breathed a calm self-confidence in, which was deprived of the race of former slaves. The process of rapid emancipation of consciousness is very noticeable in the evolution of Afro-American artistic creativity of the time. This turbulence, this buzz of unshared voices, with which US literature entered a new century, continued increasing until the First World War, which marked the beginning of a calendar year of the present twentieth century for America and the world. The W.E.B. Du Bois’ book of articles and essays The Souls of Black Folk (1903) became a kind of political bible of the Negroes and it was of great resonance. Dubois was the first to substantiate the idea of the double consciousness of the American Negro: this person is an American on the one hand while on the other hand he or she is black, discriminated, humiliated and accustomed to recognize himself in a hostile environment. Chapter 1 is called “Of Our Spiritual Strivings” that became the thesis for the whole book “The Souls of Black Folk”. You can find there that the blacks from the South strongly need the right to vote, to get educated and they deserve to be treated like the whites. This chapter introduces a metaphor about evil that became popular around the world. All the blacks of those time wore a veil that made their views on life and economy greatly different from the views of the whites. Du Bois wanted to get rid of that veil and find the cure for that veil. The impact of the great American writer W.E.B. Du Bois is highly valuable and it marks the start of a new life of all Afro-Americans around the world. He wanted to show the white people that a different color means nothing but the color and that’s it. People should have equal rights and obligations despite their look and behaviour. “Of our Spiritual Strivings” became a famous manifestation of freedom and desire to prove that every person on the Earth deserves good life.

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Law Enforcement System And The Criminal Justice System...

The Law enforcement system is one of the major components within the Criminal Justice System. According to the National Center for Victims of Crime (2008), The Law enforcement system plays a critical key role within the Criminal Justice system, since â€Å"Law enforcement officers take reports for crimes that happen in the area, then the officers investigate crimes and both gather and protect evidence, officers may arrest offenders, give testimony during the court process, and conduct follow up investigations if needed.† In addition, in this essay I will be discussing about, the cause and effect of how the law enforcement system relates to unethical behavior, to police subcultures, and finally, corruption prevention programs. First of allUnethical behavior relates to the Law enforcement system, since according to Martin ( 2011), he states that Research into police corruption offers some understanding of the phenomenon in the hope of rooting out this behavior that serves to und ermine the overall legitimacy of law enforcement. Theories on the role of society in law enforcement, the negative influence of an officer’s department, and a person’s own natural tendency to engage in unethical behavior have been offered as explanations of police corruption.†(Martin 2011) explains on how Police corruption is one of the largest unethical behaviors in our society today, and Police corruption still exists, because of the fact that many law enforcement agencies have avoided hiring candidatesShow MoreRelatedCriminal Justice System : A System Of Law Enforcement1616 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract The criminal justice system is a system of law enforcement that is directly involved in prosecuting, defending, sentencing, and punishing people suspected of crime or convicted of felony offenses. The criminal justice system is made of three major components; law enforcement, courts, and corrections. All have subcomponents that work together in order for the system to function properly and maintain order. The three major components have big backgrounds that lead up to the way they functionRead MoreLaw Enforcement And Criminal Justice System2527 Words   |  11 PagesLaw enforcement agencies together with the entire criminal justice system of the United states have for a long time been accused of exhibiting biasness when it comes to the implementation of the law. The two systems have been accused of being harsh on particular ethnic communities and being too lenient on other communities. One perfect exemplification of the discrimination and bias exhibited by law enforcement agencies r egards the criminalization of Black and Latino communities. Recent statisticsRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System Law Enforcement Agencies960 Words   |  4 PagesThe Criminal Justice System works to enforce laws within the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of the government. To insure the criminal justice agencies are organized and functioning, it is typically divided into three main components. The three main components are law enforcement agencies, court agencies, and correctional agencies (Siegel Worrall, 2015). Law enforcement agencies are in charge of thoroughly investigating the crimes and detaining suspects (Siegel Worrall, 2015). CourtRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System Biased? Law Enforcement2004 Words   |  9 PagesIs the criminal justice system biased? Law enforcement has used techniques such as criminal profiling to achieve the responsibility of protecting and serving society. How they use this practice is the key to whether the system is biased. Crimi nal profiling is a research method used by law enforcement professionals to select the potential suspects of a specific crime. Zapf (2011) stated â€Å"Criminal profiling is the process of identifying behavioral tendencies, personality traits, geographic locationRead MoreThe Impact Of Media On The Public s Perception Of Law Enforcement And The Criminal Justice System1751 Words   |  8 PagesPolicing the Media: A literature review of the Role the Media Plays in the Public’s Perception of Law Enforcement and the Criminal Justice System. The role the mass media plays in the public perception of Law Enforcement and the Criminal Justice System is potentially important in relation to the viewer’s attitude and beliefs. Does the general public support law enforcement or does the media create a negative perception of the police in the press and on network television? The CSI Effect has gainedRead MorePolicing1068 Words   |  5 PagesEthics in Criminal Justice Administration Analysis Perla M. Flores CJA/484 Criminal Justice Administration Capstone March 10, 2014 Fran Hart Ethics in Criminal Justice Administration Analysis Ethics in criminal justice administration is a very important aspect because professionals within the criminal justice system make important decisions every day that involves critical thinking, and the choices they make will have an impact in society;Read MoreA Report on the Need of Improved Communication in the Criminal Justice System736 Words   |  3 PagesCriminal Justice Integration: The criminal justice system forms vital part of Americas democratic system of government as it helps preserve the peaceful and orderly functioning of society. It serves to balance the protection and security of the overall community and the preservation of the civil liberties and freedoms of individuals. It also provides justice both for criminals and victims of crimes by ensuring offenders are tried and prosecuted through a fair trial. This is important as one ofRead MoreCriminal Justice System Paper803 Words   |  4 PagesCriminal Justice System Paper CJA/204 Vonnie Cooper March 28, 2011 Ken Salmon The word â€Å"crime† means an illegal action that is prohibited by law or a breakage of certain laws set forth by the criminal justice system. When someoneRead MoreCriminology : Crime And Crime1410 Words   |  6 PagesCriminology is defined by the book Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, which was written by author Dr. Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D., as â€Å"the scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders† (Schmalleger, 2006, p. 20). People look at criminology in a big concept of criminal prevention but criminology in itself carries a wide variety of functions in treating crime and providing punishment to those who commit crimes. Crime increases when theRead MoreEthics in Criminal Justice Administration Essay1533 Words   |  7 PagesEthics in Criminal Justice Administration Analysis Lisa Myatt CJA/484 David Mailloux July 30, 2012 Ethics and professional behavior are an important part of criminal justice administration. Ethics is referred to as what is right or wrong and your moral principles. Criminal justice administration are faced with ethical issues everyday and must deal with this ethical issues in a professional manner. The administration in criminal justice especially the

Friday, May 8, 2020

Essay on Horror Films - 727 Words

Horror films Movies have been growing increasingly more explicit for years. Horror films are no longer based on a cleverly written script with lots of twists and turns, but rather how graphic and twisted the images are throughout the movie. Horror films are appealing to viewers for various reasons. In fact, according to some film critics, â€Å"good† horror films have particular characteristics. Maggie McCutcheon in â€Å"Too Disturbing, Too Shocking,† According to Olson, people particularly enjoy experiencing the end of their fear and terror. Once the fear and terror have ended, people feel better. And, according to Stephen King in â€Å"Why We Crave Horror Movies,† horror films can help us confront our fears, and help us deal with the â€Å"bad side† of†¦show more content†¦Another image is a Dead tree outside the house making scary shadows every time it storms and also tries to eat Robbie. And in the closet there is a monster that takes Carol Anne and at t he end of the movie the closet turns in to a Giant throat with a serpent coming out of it sucking the house in to the earth. So clearly the viewers can see the characteristic of visual images in the horror film Poltergeist. Another characteristic of a horror film is Vitality or strength of source of horror. Stanley J. Solomon in â€Å"The Nightmare World† claims If the depiction of archetypal fears is one aspect of the genre, the process whereby these fears become dramatic incidents in a film reveals at least two other genre traits: the degree of unpreparedness on the part of the endangered victim, and the vitality or strength of the source of horror. The movie Poltergeist certainly has this characteristic. Some examples are a normal looking neighborhood, Tweety dies , Steven has a remote control war with his neighbor , Carol Anne answers the TV people questions, Diane mentions the swimming pool what if Carol Anne falls in, the way the clown looks when its lighting in the kids room and when the Tree and storm clouds look and the hand reaching out from the TV, but only Carol Anne sees it- rest of the family thinks it’s a earthquake and the chairs stacked up, out from the table , and Robbie utensils are bent. So you can definitely tellShow MoreRelatedThe Horror Of Horror Films1228 Words   |  5 Pagesunknown. Horror has been around for years, instilling fear into individuals. It makes us scream. It makes individuals feel as if they are going to die. Horror Films has a story behind their twisted, sick fantasies of monsters, murders, demons, and beast including ghost stories. All of these fictional charterers have a historical representation behind them. The main historical moments behind the horror movies we encountered as children all had a relation to what was going on in the world. Horror filmsRead MoreThe Horror Of Horror Films1360 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Horror Films are unsettling films designed to frighten and panic, cause dread and alarm, and to invoke our hidden worst fears, often in a terrifying, shocking finale, while captivating and entertaining us at the same time in a cathartic experience.† Horror films have been to Hollywood since the early days of cinematography. Horror films are very interesting to watch because horror movies are scary and we don t know what is going happen next. That kind of suspense in the movies makes us watch moreRead MoreThe Horror Of Horror Films1288 Words   |  6 PagesThe joy and excitement of a horror movie is such a great feeling to have. So many people ask why do people enjoy watching horror Films if they are only going to make you get scared and not be happy the whole night? That is something really easy to answer for example, horror movies are one of the genres that will make sure you got your money wor th and you didn’t waste money on a movie that you didn’t enjoy. Another fact would be is that when anyone goes into a horror film nobody knows what to expectRead MoreThe Horror Genre Of Horror Films Essay1461 Words   |  6 PagesThe horror genre has become a popular genre among the movie industry. It has become a popular genre since it has been evolving throughout the years it has been around, but one of its major climax points was when the subgenre of zombies came into the mix. The zombie genre became very popular in the year 1968 when it was first introduced in George Romero’s film Night of the Living Dead. Night of the Living Dead is one of the most prominent zombie films till this date especially since it has introducedRead MoreThe Evolution of Horror Films Essay1595 Words   |  7 Pagesterror are all just a few things to expect when watching a modern day horror film. What is horror? Horror can be defined as an intense feeling of fear, shock, or disgust. (Wilson) The description of horror is not very pleasant, but for some reason horror films are extremely popular. Why is this so? People are addicted to the synthetic feeling of being terrified. Modern day horror films are very different from the first horror films which date back to the late nineteenth century, but the goal of shockingRead MoreThe Horror Of Film Films988 Words   |  4 PagesThe genre of film, found footage, is looked down upon in today’s society. Although the genre has a large following, since some if its top movies are the infamously popular Paranormal Activity series. Some believe the genre is taking the art away from making the movie and replacing it with jump scares all from the view of a handheld camera. Others believe it is a new way to make films cheaply and be able to still deliver the same amount of excitement or even more than your traditional film. Found footageRead MoreThe Horror Of Horror Films858 Words   |  4 PagesHorror films are alluring to viewers for many reasons. Horror movies have longed to serve a purpose which is to scare and also provide stories about the dark scary side of life. People watch horror movies to get scared, for the thrill and most of all plain old entertainment. Three main characteristics of horror films are according to Maggie McCutcheon is scaring people into creating morals, Stephen King differs and says that horror films are made to let people’s emotion and fears rein free, andRead MoreHorror : Horror And Horror Film Essay2210 Words   |  9 PagesMerriam Webster defines â€Å"horror† as â€Å"painful and intense fear, dread, or dismay.† A popular definition of horror film argues that horror is subjective-anything that evokes the emotion of horror in an individual is a horror film to that individual. (Horror Writers Association) This definition is far too dependent on t he audience for its categorization. Although, the emotional argument being made in films is an essential factor when defining a genre, it cannot be the only device considered for definingRead MoreHorror Films And Gothic Horrors2537 Words   |  11 Pages HORROR FILMS In this paper, I will be discussing reviews on horror films and gothic horrors using the movie mama as my main example. My aim is to analyse the horror genre and the emotional effects it has on different people. My objectives are to identify and analyse the generic elements of the horror genre, gather people’s opinions about the horror genre and to find out the reasons for these opinions. To aid my research, I have preparedRead MoreHorror Genre Films586 Words   |  2 PagesHorror Genre Essay Horror Genre Films are unsettling films that are created to frighten and panic the audience. They are there to invoke our hidden worst fears yet entertaining the audience. They deal with our most undiscovered fears, our nightmares, and our vulnerability, our terror of the unknown, our fear of death or our loss of identity. Watching a horror film gives an opening into the scary world, into a passage for the essence of fear itself, but not really being in danger. Common story lines

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cramming Time and Long Term Memory Free Essays

Universal Vice: Cramming â€Å"Whoops! It’s the night before the big exam, and you haven’t done a lick of studying all semester. Looking back on it, you know that you should have been hitting the books all those nights you were watching television, but there’s nothing you can do about it now. Don’t throw in the towel yet, though–it’s time to get cramming. We will write a custom essay sample on Cramming: Time and Long Term Memory or any similar topic only for you Order Now † How often do you do this? Most common among high school and college-aged students, cramming is often used as a means of memorizing and the practice of working intensively to absorb large volumes of informational material in short amounts of time. It is a widely-used study skill performed in preparation of an examination or other performance-based assessment. Best stated by H. E. Gorst in his book, The Curse of Education, â€Å"as long as education is synonymous with cramming on an organized plan, it will continue to produce mediocrity. † Students are often forced to cram after improper time utilization or in efforts to understand information shortly before being tested. Improper time management is usually the cause for last-minute cramming sessions, and many study techniques have been developed to help students succeed in lieu of cramming. Generally considered as a negative study technique, cramming is becoming more and more common among students at the secondary and post-secondary level, not mentioning those who are as young as five years old. Pressure to perform well in the classroom and to engage in extracurricular activities in addition to other responsibilities often results in this kind of study habit, cramming. According to W. G. Sommer, â€Å"students in a university system often adapt to the time-constraints that are placed upon them in college, and often use cramming to perform well on tests†. In his article, Procrastination and Cramming: How Adept Students Ace the System, he states, â€Å"Many students outwardly adapt to this system, however, engage in an intense and private ritual that comprises five aspects: calculated procrastination, preparatory anxiety, climactic cramming, nick-of-time deadline-making, and a secret, if often uncelebrated, victory. These adept students often find it difficult to admit others into their efficient program of academic survival. † Students have crammed for decades. What most of us don’t know is how many use this study strategy. The lit review in the article references a collection of studies that puts the percentage somewhere between 25 and 50. In this research sample, 45 percent were on the agree side of a scale that measured the extent of cramming. These are some of the very pragmatic questions explored empirically by the researchers: How widespread is cramming among students? Do students think cramming is an effective study strategy? Does cramming work, as in how does it affect course grades? And the really bottom line questions: How effective is cramming in the long run? What’s the impact on learning and retention? Czarina Isabel F. de Leon, a freshman college student of University of the Philippines – Diliman states, â€Å"I believe that many students cram all the time. Maybe, this is due to lack of knowledge with regards to time management and discipline. But honestly speaking, I can say that cramming helps me in some way. I don’t know if it’s just me who feels that cramming stimulates my brain cells more. It seems like I am able to formulate more ideas and to absorb more information whenever I cram for some of my school works and tests. In spite of this, I don’t think that cramming has affected my grades that much because there are so many factors that can influence class marks. If I were to choose from cramming and not cramming, I would definitely choose the latter. This is because I know for a fact that if I wouldn’t cram, I’m sure that my work is clearly done and not just scrapped from somewhere. I do believe that cramming produces risky works, in such a way that a person who crams is not sure whether he did his job well or not. Perhaps the question that most needs addressing is this one: How come some exams can be mastered so successfully by students who’ve prepared by cramming? You might think it’s just a problem with multiple-choice exams. Not so. In this study and others, the amount of cramming students reported was not a function of exam type. Are teachers testing too much recall on their exams? It might be interesting to go through an exam and see how many questions can be answered with material you could memorize but not understand at all or well. Cramming is often discouraged by educators because the hurried coverage of material tends to result in poor long-term retention of material. In a 2007 study conducted by University of South Florida psychologist Doug Rohrer, it was determined that last minute studying reduces retention of material and may hinder the learning process in the long term. There is a biological reason for this. The problem is that cramming information places it into our brains in short term storage. This is where you put everyday information that is not really worth remembering. In order to learn we have to transfer information into long term memory. Once there, you can retrieve it far easier over a longer period of time. All information are processed in the brain and stored in short term memory. The problem is that these information sort of overloads the brain and are not kept for very long. Can you remember every single event that happened to you in a given day? Think of the literal thousands of bits of information you are exposed to every day. It’s not necessary to remember it all, so the brain dumps it after a time. Can you remember what you had for breakfast the day before yesterday? What shirt you wore? How much lunch cost? How many steps there are in preparing for exams? No. What makes you think you will remember some factoid from class that you never heard of before? Sure you may remember it for a day or two, but that’s it. Only when you make an effort to remember something repeatedly do you transfer that information into the other kind of memory, long term memory. Cramming fails because you’re relying on short term memory. In spite of these facts, cramming will always be an option for those who need to accomplish a large amount of task in a short period of time. Like any other vices, cramming can be very addictive and may supply us what we need for now, but we may not benefit from it for a long period of time. Since it is continuously done by most of us nowadays, not only by students but also by some adults as well, avoiding it will be very difficult for all of us. It’s like a universal vice that most of us used to live with and it can be applicable for everyone. Cramming is a vice that will forever be present in this world – it may be lessened but will never be eradicated, especially for students like me. â€Å"While cramming probably won’t get you an â€Å"A,† it can definitely save you from an â€Å"F. † So suck it up and get ready for a long, hard night. And vow to be a better student from now on. † Works Cited: â€Å"Cramming (education) -. † Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . Pangilinan, Candy. â€Å"Candidly  » Cramming and homecoming. † PEP. ph: The Number One Site for Philippine Showbiz | Home. 2 Dec. 2007. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . â€Å"How to Cram for a Test – wikiHow. † WikiHow – The How-to Manual That You Can Edit. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . Weimer, Maryellen. â€Å"Key Questions about Cramming  «. † Teaching Professor. 02 Dec. 2008. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . â€Å"Cramming – Definition of cramming at YourDictionary. com. † Dic tionary Definitions, Sentence Examples, Synonyms and More. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . â€Å"Cram – Definition of cram verb (LEARN) from Cambridge Dictionary Online: Free English Dictionary and Thesaurus. Cambridge Dictionary Online: Free English Dictionary and Thesaurus – Cambridge University Press – Cambridge Dictionaries Online – Cambridge University Press. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . Handy, Edna Wells. â€Å"Why Students Fail. † Autoredirect to main site. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . â€Å"The dangers of cramming for exams. † PSU BMB. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . Weinberg, Tamar. â€Å"How to Cram for Exams – How To – Lifehacker. † Lifehacker, tips and downloads for getting things done. 02 Mar. 2008. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . de Leon, Czarina Isabel . Personal Interview. 14 October 2009. How to cite Cramming: Time and Long Term Memory, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Starbucks Mission Statement free essay sample

A Mission statement is defined by Peter and Donnelly in their Marketing Management textbook as, the statement or purpose, of an organization as the description of its reason for existence. â€Å"It is the long-run version of what the organization strives to be, the unique aim that differentiates the organization from similar ones, and the means by which this differentiation will take place† (p8). Many organizations can share similar mission statements. Indeed, it is a safe assumption to say that every organization intends to maximize the customer experience through a professional climate and quality performance. This generic phrasing, however, does not aid in the differentiation. As a consumer, what about a mission statement such as that would draw me to one company vs. another? â€Å"In essence, the mission statement defines the direction in which the organization is heading and how it will succeed in reaching its desired goal† (Peter Donnelly 8). An article for Demand Media, written by Elizabeth Smith and titled Five Criteria for a Mission Statement, gives a fairly succinct breakdown of what you should look for when both analyzing and writing a mission statement. We will write a custom essay sample on Starbucks Mission Statement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Smith first directs us that a mission statement be informative. â€Å"Conveying the overall goal of the organization and giving insight into the idea that guides each project and decision† (Smith). The informational aspect of the mission statement is particularly important because it sends a message to both potential customers, and to the internal employees to reflect back on when making project decisions. â€Å"The mission statement should strike a balance of clarifying the purpose within the field and provide some form of inspiration as well† (Smith). Next, your mission statement should be simple. Too often and organization will attempt a grandly worded mission statement that results in confusion and excessive wording that detracts from the meaning and purpose. â€Å"When it comes to mission statements, too much detail can dilute the overall meaning† (Smith). Furthermore, and most concerning, a long winded and complex mission statement can result in leaving the reader with a vague impression. Since this is the exact opposite of what you’re trying to convey, it further drives home a need for simplicity. In conjunction with the simplicity of the mission statement, the next thing to consider is how memorable it is/will be. â€Å"A mission statement can help guide the actions of employees and decisions but not if it is impossible to remember† (Smith). A solid mission statement, while being short and simple, should also inspire action and utilize wording that supports this desire. Moving on to what I personally consider to be one of the most important aspects of the mission statement is achievability. What good is it to write up a grand statement that promises the world if it isn’t attainable? You will only be setting the organization up for failure, the consumers for disappointment, and the employees for frustration. A strong mission statement gives staff something concrete to work on and a larger goal to work towards while creating a balance between what you do and what you’re capable of doing (Smith). Finally, employee buy-in. As mentioned earlier, the mission statement is just as crucial to the employees of an organization as it is to the potential consumer. If the organization adopts a mission statement that the employees don’t feel represents them adequately, then their motivation and productivity will reflect and the organization will suffer. Peter and Donnelly has a slightly more succinct explanation of what a mission statement should entail. According to them, â€Å"in developing a statement of mission, management must take into account three key elements; the organization’s history, its distinctive competencies, and its environment† (9). It goes without saying that every organization has a history of some sort. Whether founded by 2 people in a dark room with aspirations for great things, or conceived of by a board room of people as a spin-off from an existing organization, they all have â€Å"a history of objectives, accomplishments, mistakes, and policies. In formulating a mission, the critical characteristics and events of the past must be considered† (Peter and Donnelly 9). The 2nd part of an organization’s mission statement should focus on the organizations distinctive competencies. Many competitive organizations in today’s market encompass a wide array of ‘things’ it can perform or complete. However, at the core of the mission statement should be the one thing they do the best. Their fundamental foundation the company was founded against. â€Å"Distinctive competencies are things that an organization does well – so well in fact that they give it an advantage over similar organizations† (Peter Donnelly 9). Finally, the organization’s environment. According to Peter and Donnelly, â€Å"the organizations environment dictates the opportunities, constraints, and threats that must be identified before a mission statement is developed. † This is a step that can often be overlooked by marketing executives. The awareness necessary to be able to recognize constraints and threats can be a sticking point to developing a quality mission statement. Many times people can be too focused on the opportunities to not see the potential hurdles that may need to be included when considering the operational environment. Now I will apply these two schools of thought to the selected Starbucks mission statement which is: â€Å"Our mission to inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup, and one neighborhood at a time. † In a straight analysis, the question could be asked, â€Å"do I feel informed by this mission statement? † I think the answer is yes. If you were to ask me after reading this statement, â€Å"how will Starbucks accomplish their mission,† I would be able to reply by saying they intend to place their retail stores in neighborhood areas and focus on the individual sales to specific consumers. I feel that this statement is extremely simple as it seems to cut straight through any amount of vagary and tells me, in very few words, precisely what I can expect from this organization. Hand in hand with this I feel is the achievability of the mission. In keeping it simple and short, they haven’t created a mountain for them to try and overcome. Which finally, I feel is something any employee of this organization should be able to get behind. They aren’t being asked to move mountains or even be overly elaborate, just sell one cup at a time. To apply this mission statement to Peter and Donnelly’s methods however, requires a little more thought. At a glance I don’t see much in the way of history captured in the succinct mission statement provided. But, given public knowledge of Starbucks, it isn’t too challenging to connect the link between the reality of their past and the fact that their current mission statement reflects the method they have employed since first opening their doors. In terms of competencies, Starbucks makes coffee and their mission statement declares their intent to do just think. Finally, the environment. This is something I think is mission from most mission statements, as I mentioned earlier, but Starbucks seems to have captured it in a subtle way. They mention their desire to do their mission in local neighborhoods. This tells you a lot of information. An average person should be able to extrapolate from that short statement the locations (residential vs. largely urban) locations, which would imply a storefront size, and possibly the necessary employee base per location. In this way, I feel that Starbucks has not only given us a quite literal version of the environment they’ll operate in but has also hinted at several of the constraints and opportunities that exist as well. Based on the two methods used to evaluate a mission statement, I feel it is safe to say that Starbucks clearly put some time and effort into what they wished theirs to say. It not only captures all expected aspects of traditional mission statements, but does it in a way that most continue to struggle towards.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Why You Must Read the Book Hidden Figures

Why You Must Read the Book 'Hidden Figures' Books and movies have a long-standing and complex relationship. When a book becomes a best-seller, there’s an almost inevitable film adaptation in the works almost immediately. Then again, sometimes books that remain under the radar are made into movies, and then become best-sellers. And sometimes a film version of a book sparks a national conversation that the book alone couldn’t quite manage. Such is the case with Margot Lee Shetterly’s book Hidden Figures. The film rights to the book were sold before it even published, and the film was released just three months after the book’s publication last year. And the film has become a sensation, grossing more than $66 million so far and becoming the center of the new conversation on race, sexism, and even the doleful state of the American space program. Starring Taraji P. Henson, Octavia Spencer, Janelle Monae, Kirsten Dunst, Jim Parsons, and Kevin Costner, the film takes a fairly well-worn format- the historical, inspirational true but previously-unknown story- and transcends it by leaving that story fairly unvarnished. It’s also a nearly perfect film for this moment in time, a moment when America is questioning its own identity, its history (and future) in terms of race and gender, and its place as a world leader. In short, Hidden Figures is definitely a movie you want to see. But it’s also a book you must read, even if you’ve seen the movie already and think you know the full story. A Deeper Dive Even though Hidden Figures is more than two hours long, it’s still a movie. That means it inescapably condenses events, elides moments, and deletes or combines characters and moments in order to create a narrative structure and a sense of drama. That’s fine; we all understand that a movie isn’t history. But you’ll never get the full story from a film adaptation. Films can be like the Cliff’s Notes versions of books, giving you a high-altitude overview of a story, but with manipulation and omission of timelines, people, and events. While Hidden Figures the movie might be compelling, enjoyable, and even somewhat educational, you’re missing half the story if you don’t read the book. The White Guy in the Room Speaking of manipulations, let’s talk about Kevin Costner’s character, Al Harrison. The Director of the Space Task Group didn’t actually exist, though of course there was a Director of the Space Task Group. There were several, in fact, during that period of time, and Costner’s character is a composite of three of them, based on the recollections of Katherine G. Johnson herself. Costner’s getting deserved praise for his performance as the white, middle-aged man who isn’t exactly a bad person- he’s just so enmeshed in his white, male privilege and the lack of awareness on racial issues at the time that he doesn’t even notice how oppressed and marginalized the black women in his department are. So there’s no question that the character’s writing and performance are great, and serve the story. The issue is the simple fact that someone in Hollywood knew they needed to have a male star of Costner’s caliber to get the film made and marketed, and that’s why his role is as large as it is, and why he gets a few set-piece speeches (especially the apocryphal destruction of the â€Å"Whites Only† bathroom sign) that make him as much the center of the story as Johnson, Dorothy Vaughan, and Mary Jackson. If all you do is watch the movie, you might think that Al Harrison existed, and was as much a hero as the brilliant female computers that are the true focus of the story. The Reality of Racism Hidden Figures the film is entertainment and as such, it needs villains. There is no doubt that racism was prevalent in the 1960s (as it is today) and that Johnson, Vaughan, and Jackson had to overcome challenges that their white and male colleagues didn’t even know existed. But according to Johnson herself, the film overstates the level of racism she actually experienced. The fact is, while prejudice and segregation were facts, Katherine Johnson says she â€Å"didn’t feel† the segregation at NASA. â€Å"Everybody there was doing research,† she said, â€Å"You had a mission and you worked on it, and it was important to you to do your job...and play bridge at lunch. I didnt feel any segregation. I knew it was there, but I didnt feel it.† Even the infamous bathroom-sprint across the campus was exaggerated; there were, in fact, bathrooms for blacks not nearly as far away- although there were indeed â€Å"white only† and â€Å"black only† facilities, and the black-only bathrooms were harder to find. Jim Parsons’ character, Paul Stafford, is a complete fabrication who serves to embody many of the typical sexist and racist attitudes of the time- but again, doesn’t actually represent anything that Johnson, Jackson, or Vaughan actually experienced. Hollywood needs villains, and so Stafford (as well as Kirsten Dunst’s character Vivian Mitchell) was created to be the oppressive, racist white male of the story, even though Johnson’s recollections of her experience at NASA were largely unremarkable. A Great Book None of this means the story of these women and their work on our space program isn’t well worth your time- it is. Racism and sexism are still problems today, even if we’ve gotten rid of much of the official machinery of it in everyday life. And their story is an inspiring one that languished in obscurity for far too long- even star Octavia Spencer thought the story was made-up when she was first contacted about playing Dorothy Vaughan. Even better, Shetterly has written a great book. Shetterly weaves her own story into the history, making clear the connections between the three women who are the focus of the book and the millions of black women who came after them- women who had a slightly better chance at realizing their dreams in part due to the fight that Vaughan, Johnson, and Jackson took on. And Shetterly writes with a gentle, inspiring tone that celebrates the achievements instead of wallowing in the obstructions. It’s a wonderful reading experience filled with information and incredible background you won’t get from the movie. Further Reading If you want to know a bit more about the role women of all colors played throughout the history of technology in America, try Rise of the Rocket Girls by Nathalia Holt. It tells the fascinating story of the women who worked at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the 1940s and 1950s and offers another glimpse at how deeply buried the contributions of the marginalized have been in this country. Source Holt, Nathalia. Rise of the Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled Us, from Missiles to the Moon to Mars. Paperback, Reprint edition, Back Bay Books, January 17, 2017. Shetterly, Margot Lee. Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race. Paperback, Media Tie In edition, William Morrow Paperbacks, December 6, 2016.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Octaves and Decibels

Octaves and Decibels Octaves and Decibels Octaves and Decibels By Maeve Maddox A reader asks: Can you inform on the usage of . . . octave and decible?   I am of the opinion, that octave deals with human voice and decible deals with noise.   Both words, octave and decibel are terms of measurement. Octave derives from the Latin word for â€Å"eight† and decibel incorporates the Latin word for â€Å"ten.† The words can be used in various contexts. I’ll just address the uses suggested by the question. The words bel and decibel are units of measurement of sound intensity. A bel is A unit, equivalent to ten decibels used in the comparison of two levels of power in an electrical communication circuit. A decibel (db) is one tenth of a bel. â€Å"Bel† is a shortening of the name of inventor Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922). A bel is A unit, equivalent to ten decibels, used in the comparison of two levels of power in an electrical communication circuit. An octave in the musical sense is an interval embracing eight notes of the diatonic scale. Think of the Do-re-me song in Sound of Music. Doe- a deer, a female deer Ray- a drop of golden sun Me- a name i call myself Far- a long long way to run Sew- a needle pulling thread La- a note to follow so Tea- a drink with jam and bread That will bring us back to do oh oh oh The normal speaking range of the human voice is about 20-50 decibels. Sounds that go above that range become annoying, for example a vacuum cleaner (70 db). Noise becomes painful at 120 db. Sounds above 132 db lead to permanent hearing damage and eardrum rupture. In answer to the question, decibel refers to sound, pleasant or unpleasant, whether it originates in the vocal cords or elsewhere. NOTE: Although both the OED and Merriam-Webster give db as the abbreviation for decibel, Ive been informed by a technical writer that the standard abbreviation is dB. Sources: Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Mosbys Medical Dictionary, Oxford English Dictionary Online Etymology Dictionary Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:12 Signs and Symbols You Should KnowHow to Punctuate Descriptions of ColorsWhat Is a Doctor?